The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) input power-split reference application represents a full HEV model with an internal combustion engine, transmission, battery, motor, generator, and associated powertrain control algorithms. Use the HEV input power-split reference application for HIL testing, tradeoff analysis, and control parameter optimization of a power-split hybrid like the Toyota® Prius®. To create and open a working copy of the HEV input power-split reference application project, enter
Nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack
Mapped electric motors
Mapped spark-ignition (SI) engine
This diagram shows the powertrain configuration.
This table describes the blocks and subsystems in the reference application, indicating which subsystems contain variants. To implement the model variants, the reference application uses variant subsystems.
|Reference Application Element||Description||Variants|
|Drive Cycle Source block|
Generates a standard or user-specified drive cycle velocity versus time profile. Block output is the selected or specified vehicle longitudinal speed.
Creates environment variables, including road grade, wind velocity, and atmospheric temperature and pressure.
Uses the Longitudinal Driver block to generate normalized acceleration and braking commands based on vehicle target and feedback velocities.
Implements a powertrain control module (PCM) containing an input power-split hybrid control module (HCM) and an engine control module (ECM).
Implements a hybrid passenger car that contains drivetrain, electric plant, and engine subsystems.
Displays vehicle-level performance, battery state of charge (SOC), fuel economy, and emission results that are useful for powertrain matching and component selection analysis.
Drive Cycle Source block generates a target vehicle velocity for a
selected or specified drive cycle. The reference application has these options.
Output sample time
Continuous operator commands
Discrete operator commands
Longitudinal Driver subsystem generates normalized
acceleration and braking commands based on the target vehicle velocity. The
reference application has these options.
PI control with tracking windup and feed-forward gains that are a function of vehicle velocity.
Optimal single-point preview (look ahead) control.
Proportional-integral (PI) control with tracking windup and feed-forward gains.
Low-pass filter (LPF)
Use an LPF on target velocity error for smoother driving.
Do not use a filter on velocity error.
|Stateflow® chart models reverse, neutral, and drive gear shift scheduling.|
Input gear, vehicle state, and velocity feedback generates acceleration and braking commands to track forward and reverse vehicle motion.
Stateflow chart models reverse, neutral, park, and N-speed gear shift scheduling.
Controller subsystem has a PCM containing an input
power-split HCM and an ECM. The controller has these variants.
SI engine controller
|Input power split HCM|
Friction braking provides the torque not supplied by regenerative motor braking.
Friction braking and regenerative motor braking independently provide the torque.
The input-power split HCM implements a dynamic supervisory controller that determines the engine torque, generator torque, motor torque, and brake pressure commands. Specifically, the input power-split HCM:
Converts the driver accelerator pedal signal to a wheel torque request. The algorithm uses the optimal engine torque and maximum motor torque curves to calculate the total powertrain torque at the wheels.
Converts the driver brake pedal signal to a brake pressure request. The algorithm multiplies the brake pedal signal by a maximum brake pressure.
Implements a regenerative braking algorithm for the traction motor to recover the maximum amount of kinetic energy from the vehicle.
Implements a virtual battery management system. The algorithm outputs the dynamic discharge and charge power limits as functions of battery SOC.
Determines the vehicle operating mode through a set of rules and decision logic implemented in Stateflow. The operating modes are functions of wheel speed and requested wheel torque. The algorithm uses the wheel power request, accelerator pedal, battery SOC, and vehicle speed rules to transition between electric vehicle (EV) and HEV modes.
Traction motor provides the wheel torque request.
HEV – Charge Sustaining (Low Power)
HEV – Charge Depleting (High Power)
While the vehicle is at rest, the engine and generator can provide optional charging if battery SOC is below a minimum SOC value.
Controls the motor, generator, and engine through a set of rules and decision logic implemented in Stateflow.
A rule-based power management algorithm calculates a motor torque that does not exceed the dynamic power limits.
To implement a passenger car, the
Passenger Car subsystem
contains drivetrain, electric plant, and engine subsystems. To create your own
engine variants for the reference application, use the CI and SI engine project
templates. The reference application has these variants.
Differential and Compliance
Configure drivetrain for all wheel, front wheel, or rear wheel drive. For the all wheel drive variant, you can configure the type of coupling torque.
Configured for 3 degrees of freedom
Wheels and Brakes
For the wheels, you can configure the type of:
For performance and clarity, to determine the longitudinal force of each wheel, the variants implement the Longitudinal Wheel block. To determine the total longitudinal force of all wheels acting on the axle, the variants use a scale factor to multiply the force of one wheel by the number of wheels on the axle. By using this approach to calculate the total force, the variants assume equal tire slip and loading at the front and rear axles, which is common for longitudinal powertrain studies. If this is not the case, for example when friction or loads differ on the left and right sides of the axles, use unique Longitudinal Wheel blocks to calculate independent forces. However, using unique blocks to model each wheel increases model complexity and computational cost.
|Electric Plant Subsystem||Variant||Description|
|Battery and DC-DC Converter|
Configured with NiMH battery
Mapped generator with implicit controller
Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with controller
Mapped motor with implicit controller
Interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) with controller
Mapped SI engine
 Balazs, A., Morra, E., and Pischinger, S., Optimization of Electrified Powertrains for City Cars. SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2451. Warrendale, PA: SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains, 2012.
 Burress, T. A. et al, Evaluation of the 2010 Toyota Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive System. Technical Report ORNL/TM-2010/253. U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, March 2011.
 Rask, E., Duoba, M., Loshse-Busch, H., and Bocci, D., Model Year 2010 (Gen 3) Toyota Prius Level-1 Testing Report. Technical Report ANL/ES/RP-67317. U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory, September 2010.
CI Controller | CI Core Engine | Datasheet Battery | Drive Cycle Source | Interior PM Controller | Interior PMSM | Longitudinal Driver | Mapped CI Engine | Mapped SI Engine | SI Controller | SI Core Engine