## Smoothing Splines

### About Smoothing Splines

If your data is noisy, you might want to fit it using a smoothing spline. Alternatively, you can use one of the smoothing methods described in Filtering and Smoothing Data.

The smoothing spline *s* is constructed for the specified *smoothing parameter*
*p* and the specified weights
*w _{i}*. The smoothing spline
minimizes

$$p{{\displaystyle \sum _{i}{w}_{i}{\left({y}_{i}-s({x}_{i})\right)}^{2}+(1-p){\displaystyle \int \left(\frac{{d}^{2}s}{d{x}^{2}}\right)}}}^{2}dx$$

If the weights are not specified, they are assumed to be 1 for all data points.

*p* is defined between 0 and 1. *p* = 0 produces
a least-squares straight-line fit to the data, while *p* = 1
produces a cubic spline interpolant. If you do not specify the smoothing parameter,
it is automatically selected in the “interesting range.” The
interesting range of *p* is often near
1/(1+*h*^{3}/6) where
*h* is the average spacing of the data points, and the
interesting range is typically much smaller than the allowed range [0,1] of the
parameter *p*. Because smoothing splines have an associated
smoothing parameter, you might consider these fits to be parametric in that sense.
However, smoothing splines are also piecewise polynomials like cubic spline or
shape-preserving interpolants and are considered a nonparametric fit type in this
guide.

**Note**

The smoothing spline algorithm is based on the `csaps`

function.

The nuclear reaction data from the file *carbon12alpha.mat* is
shown here with three smoothing spline fits. The default smoothing parameter
(*p* = 0.99) produces the smoothest curve. The cubic spline
curve (*p* = 1) goes through all the data points, but is not quite
as smooth. The third curve (*p* = 0.95) misses the data by a wide
margin and illustrates how small the “interesting range” of
*p* can be.

### Select Smoothing Spline Fit Interactively

Load the data at the MATLAB

^{®}command line.`load carbon12alpha`

Open the Curve Fitter app.

curveFitter

Alternatively, on the

**Apps**tab, in the**Math, Statistics and Optimization**group, click Curve Fitter.On the

**Curve Fitter**tab, in the**Data**section, click**Select Data**. In the**Select Fitting Data**dialog box, select`angle`

as the**X data**value and`counts`

as the**Y data**value. For details, see Select Data to Fit in Curve Fitter App.On the

**Curve Fitter**tab, in the**Fit Type**section, click the arrow to open the gallery, and click**Smoothing Spline**in the**Smoothing**group.In the

**Fit Options**pane, you can specify the**Smoothing Parameter**value.The default

**Smoothing Parameter**value is close to 1. The app tries to select a default value appropriate for your data. You can change the**Smoothing Parameter**value by doing one of the following:To create a smoother fit further from the data, click the

**< Smoother**button repeatedly until the plot shows the smoothness you want.To create a rougher fit closer to the data, click the

**Rougher >**button until you are satisfied with the plot.Alternatively, specify any value from 0 to 1 for the smoothing parameter. A value of 0 produces a linear polynomial fit (a least-squares straight-line fit to the data), while 1 produces a piecewise cubic polynomial fit that passes through all the data points (a cubic spline interpolant). For the

`carbon12alpha`

data set, try**Smoothing Parameter**values`1`

and`0.95`

.Click

**Default**to return to the initial value.

### Fit Smoothing Spline Models Using the `fit`

Function

This example shows how to use the `fit`

function to fit a smoothing spline model to data.

**Fit a Smoothing Spline Model**

Load data and fit a smoothing spline model by specifying `'smoothingspline'`

when calling the fit function.

load enso f = fit(month,pressure,'smoothingspline'); plot(f,month,pressure)

**View Calculated Smoothing Parameter**

Create the model again and use the third output argument to view the calculated smoothing parameter. The smoothing parameter is the `p`

value in the `out`

structure. The default value depends on the data set.

```
[f,gof,out] = fit(month,pressure,'smoothingspline');
out.p
```

ans = 0.9000

**Specify Smoothing Parameter using 'SmoothingParam'**

Specify the smoothing parameter for a new fit with the `'SmoothingParam'`

option. Its value must be between 0 and 1.

f = fit(month,pressure,'smoothingspline','SmoothingParam',0.07); plot(f,month,pressure)

**Specify Smoothing Parameter using fitoptions**

Alternatively, use `fitoptions`

to specify a smoothing parameter before fitting.

options = fitoptions('Method','Smooth','SmoothingParam',0.07); [f,gof,out] = fit(month,pressure,'smooth',options); out.p

ans = 0.0700

For an alternative to `'smoothingspline'`

, you can use the csaps cubic smoothing spline function or other spline functions that allow greater control over what you can create. See Introducing Spline Fitting.

### Compare Cubic and Smoothing Spline Fit Using Curve Fitter

This example compares a cubic spline interpolant fit and a smoothing spline fit using the Curve Fitter app.

Create the data

`x`

and`y`

.x = (4*pi)*[0 1 rand(1,25)]; y = sin(x) + .2*(rand(size(x))-.5);

Open the Curve Fitter app.

curveFitter

Alternatively, on the

**Apps**tab, in the**Math, Statistics and Optimization**group, click Curve Fitter.On the

**Curve Fitter**tab, in the**Data**section, click**Select Data**. In the**Select Fitting Data**dialog box, select`x`

as the**X data**value and`y`

as the**Y data**value.On the

**Curve Fitter**tab, in the**Fit Type**section, click the arrow to open the gallery, and click**Interpolant**in the**Interpolation**group.In the

**Fit Options**pane, specify the**Interpolation Method**as`Cubic spline`

. The Curve Fitter app fits and plots the cubic spline interpolant.Rename the fit. In the

**Table Of Fits**pane, double-click the**Fit Name**value and enter`CubicSplineFit`

.View the

**Results**pane. Some goodness-of-fit statistics, such as RMSE, are not defined for**Interpolant**fits and their value is NaN.A cubic spline interpolation is defined as a piecewise polynomial that results in a structure of coefficients (

`p`

). The number of “pieces” in the structure is one less than the number of fitted data points, and the number of coefficients for each piece is four because the polynomial degree is three. You can examine the coefficient structure`p`

if you export your fit to the workspace by entering`CubicSplineFit.p`

. For more information on the coefficient structure, see Constructing and Working with ppform Splines.Create another fit to compare. Right-click the existing fit

`CubicSplineFit`

on the**Table Of Fits**tab and select**Duplicate "CubicSplineFit"**. Rename the new fit to`SmoothingSplineFit`

.On the

**Curve Fitter**tab, in the**Fit Type**section, select a`Smoothing Spline`

fit.In the

**Fit Options**pane, the**Smoothing Parameter**defines the level of smoothness. The app calculates the**Smoothing Parameter**depending on the data set. For this data set, the default**Smoothing Parameter**is close to 1, indicating that the smoothing spline is nearly cubic and comes very close to passing through each data point.You can change the level of smoothing by specifying

**Smoothing Parameter**as a nonnegative scalar in the range [0 1]. Specify**Smoothing Parameter**as 0 to create a linear polynomial fit. Specify**Smoothing Parameter**as 1 to create a piecewise cubic polynomial fit that passes through all the data points.See the

**Results**pane for numerical results of the smoothing spline fit.Compare the plots for the two fits (cubic spline interpolant fit and smoothing spline fit), which you created. The two fits are similar for interior points, but diverge at the end points.

**Note**

Your results depend on random start points and may vary from those described.