You can estimate the transfer function of an unknown system based on the system's measured input and output data.
In DSP System Toolbox™, you can estimate the transfer function of a system using the dsp.TransferFunctionEstimator
System object™ in MATLAB^{®} and the Discrete Transfer Function Estimator block in
Simulink^{®}. The relationship between the input x and output
y is modeled by the linear, timeinvariant transfer function
T_{xy}. The transfer function is the
ratio of the cross power spectral density of x and
y, P_{yx}, to the power
spectral density of x, P_{xx}:
$${T}_{xy}(f)=\frac{{P}_{yx}(f)}{{P}_{xx}(f)}$$
The dsp.TransferFunctionEstimator
object and
Discrete Transfer Function Estimator block use the Welch’s averaged
periodogram method to compute the P_{xx} and
P_{xy}. For more details on this method,
see Spectral Analysis.
Coherence
The coherence, or magnitudesquared coherence, between x and y is defined as:
$${C}_{xy}(f)=\frac{{\left{P}_{xy}\right}^{2}}{{P}_{xx}*{P}_{yy}}$$
The coherence function estimates the extent to which you can predict y from x. The value of the coherence is in the range 0 ≤ C_{xy}(f) ≤ 1. If C_{xy} = 0, the input x and output y are unrelated. A C_{xy} value greater than 0 and less than 1 indicates one of the following:
Measurements are noisy.
The system is nonlinear.
Output y is a function of x and other inputs.
The coherence of a linear system represents the fractional part of the output signal power that is produced by the input at that frequency. For a particular frequency, 1 – C_{xy} is an estimate of the fractional power of the output that the input does not contribute to.
When you set the OutputCoherence
property of dsp.TransferFunctionEstimator
to true
,
the object computes the output coherence. In the Discrete Transfer Function
Estimator block, to compute the coherence spectrum, select the
Output magnitude squared coherence estimate check box.
To estimate the transfer function of a system in MATLAB™, use the dsp.TransferFunctionEstimator
System object™. The object implements the Welch's average modified periodogram method and uses the measured input and output data for estimation.
Initialize the System
The system is a cascade of two filter stages: dsp.LowpassFilter and a parallel connection of dsp.AllpassFilter and dsp.AllpoleFilter.
allpole = dsp.AllpoleFilter; allpass = dsp.AllpassFilter; lpfilter = dsp.LowpassFilter;
Specify Signal Source
The input to the system is a sine wave with a frequency of 100 Hz. The sampling frequency is 44.1 kHz.
sine = dsp.SineWave('Frequency',100,'SampleRate',44100,... 'SamplesPerFrame',1024);
Create Transfer Function Estimator
To estimate the transfer function of the system, create the dsp.TransferFunctionEstimator
System object.
tfe = dsp.TransferFunctionEstimator('FrequencyRange','onesided',... 'OutputCoherence', true);
Create Array Plot
Initialize two dsp.ArrayPlot
objects: one to display the magnitude response of the system and the other to display the coherence estimate between the input and the output.
tfeplotter = dsp.ArrayPlot('PlotType','Line',... 'XLabel','Frequency (Hz)',... 'YLabel','Magnitude Response (dB)',... 'YLimits',[120 20],... 'XOffset',0,... 'XLabel','Frequency (Hz)',... 'Title','System Transfer Function',... 'SampleIncrement',44100/1024); coherenceplotter = dsp.ArrayPlot('PlotType','Line',... 'YLimits',[0 1.2],... 'YLabel','Coherence',... 'XOffset',0,... 'XLabel','Frequency (Hz)',... 'Title','Coherence Estimate',... 'SampleIncrement',44100/1024);
By default, the xaxis of the array plot is in samples. To convert this axis into frequency, set the 'SampleIncrement' property of the dsp.ArrayPlot
object to Fs/1024. In this example, this value is 44100/1024, or 43.0664. For a twosided spectrum, the XOffset
property of the dsp.ArrayPlot
object must be [Fs/2]. The frequency varies in the range [Fs/2 Fs/2]. In this example, the array plot shows a onesided spectrum. Hence, set the XOffset
to 0. The frequency varies in the range [0 Fs/2].
Estimate the Transfer Function
The transfer function estimator accepts two signals: input to the twostage filter and output of the twostage filter. The input to the filter is a sine wave containing additive white Gaussian noise. The noise has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of 0.1. The estimator estimates the transfer function of the twostage filter. The output of the estimator is the frequency response of the filter, which is complex. To extract the magnitude portion of this complex estimate, use the abs function. To convert the result into dB, apply a conversion factor of 20*log10(magnitude).
for Iter = 1:1000 input = sine() + .1*randn(1024,1); lpfout = lpfilter(input); allpoleout = allpole(lpfout); allpassout = allpass(lpfout); output = allpoleout + allpassout; [tfeoutput,outputcoh] = tfe(input,output); tfeplotter(20*log10(abs(tfeoutput))); coherenceplotter(outputcoh); end
The first plot shows the magnitude response of the system. The second plot shows the coherence estimate between the input and output of the system. Coherence in the plot varies in the range [0 1] as expected.
Magnitude Response of the Filter Using fvtool
The filter is a cascade of two filter stages  dsp.LowpassFilter and a parallel connection of dsp.AllpassFilter and dsp.AllpoleFilter. All the filter objects are used in their default state. Using the filter coefficients, derive the system transfer function and plot the frequency response using freqz. Below are the coefficients in the [Num] [Den] format:
All pole filter  [1 0] [1 0.1]
All pass filter  [0.5 1/sqrt(2) 1] [1 1/sqrt(2) 0.5]
Lowpass filter  Determine the coefficients using the following commands:
lpf = dsp.LowpassFilter; Coefficients = coeffs(lpf);
Coefficients.Numerator gives the coefficients in an array format. The mathematical derivation of the overall system transfer function is not shown here. Once you derive the transfer function, run fvtool and you can see the frequency response below:
The magnitude response that fvtool shows matches the magnitude response that the dsp.TransferFunctionEstimator
object estimates.
To estimate the transfer function of a system in Simulink, use the Discrete Transfer Function Estimator block. The block implements the Welch's average modified periodogram method and uses the measured input and output data for estimation.
The system is a cascade of two filter stages: a lowpass filter and a parallel connection of an allpole filter and allpass filter. The input to the system is a sine wave containing additive white Gaussian noise. The noise has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of 0.1. The input to the estimator is the system input and the system output. The output of the estimator is the frequency response of the system, which is complex. To extract the magnitude portion of this complex estimate, use the Abs block. To convert the result into dB, the system uses a dB (1 ohm) block.
Open and Inspect the Model
To open the model, enter ex_transfer_function_estimator
in the
MATLAB command prompt.
Here are the settings of the blocks in the model.
Block  Parameter Changes  Purpose of the block 

Sine Wave 

Sinusoid signal with frequency at 100 Hz 
Random Source 
 Random Source block generates a random noise signal with properties specified through the block dialog box 
Lowpass Filter  No change  Lowpass filter 
Allpole Filter  No change  Allpole filter with coefficients [1
0.1] 
Discrete Filter 
 Allpass filter with coefficients [1/sqrt(2)
0.5] 
Discrete Transfer Function Estimator 
 Transfer function estimator 
Abs  No change  Extracts the magnitude information from the output of the transfer function estimator 
First Array Plot block 
Click View:
 Shows the magnitude response of the system 
Second Array Plot block 
Click View:
 Shows the coherence estimate 
By default, the xaxis of the array plot is in samples. To
convert this axis into frequency, the Sample increment
parameter is set to Fs/1024
. In this example, this value is
44100/1024
, or 43.0664
. For a twosided
spectrum, the Xoffset parameter must be
–Fs/2
. The frequency varies in the range [Fs/2
Fs/2]
. In this example, the array plot shows a onesided spectrum.
Hence, the Xoffset is set to 0. The frequency varies in the
range [0 Fs/2]
.
Run the Model
The first plot shows the magnitude response of the system. The second plot shows
the coherence estimate between the input and output of the system. Coherence in the
plot varies in the range [0 1]
as expected.