spreadsheetImportOptions

Import options object for Spreadsheets

Description

A SpreadsheetImportOptions object enables you to specify how MATLAB® imports tabular data from spreadsheet files. The object contains properties that control the data import process, including the handling of errors and missing data.

Creation

You can create a SpreadsheetImportOptions object by using either the detectImportOptions function or the spreadsheetImportOptions function (described here):

  • Use detectImportOptions to detect and populate the import properties based on the contents of the spreadsheet specified in filename.

    opts = detectImportOptions(filename);

  • Use spreadsheetImportOptions to define the import properties based on your import requirements.

Syntax

opts = spreadsheetImportOptions
opts = spreadsheetImportOptions('NumVariables',numVars)
opts = spreadsheetImportOptions(___,Name,Value)

Description

example

opts = spreadsheetImportOptions creates a SpreadsheetImportOptions object with one variable.

example

opts = spreadsheetImportOptions('NumVariables',numVars) creates the object with the number of variables specified in numVars.

example

opts = spreadsheetImportOptions(___,Name,Value) specifies additional properties for SpreadsheetImportOptions object using one or more name-value pair arguments.

Input Arguments

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Number of variables, specified as a positive scalar integer.

Properties

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Variable Properties

Variable names, specified as a cell array of character vectors or string array. The VariableNames property contains the names to use when importing variables.

If the data contains N variables, but no variable names are detected, then the VariableNames property contains {'Var1','Var2',...,'VarN'}.

Example: opts.VariableNames returns the current (detected) variable names.

Example: opts.VariableNames(3) = {'Height'} changes the name of the third variable to Height.

Data Types: char | string | cell

Variable data types, specified as a cell array of character vectors or string array. The VariableTypes property designates the data types to use when importing variables. When assigning new values, specify VariableTypes as a cell array of valid data type names.

To update the VariableTypes property, use the setvartype function.

Example: opts.VariableTypes returns the current (detected) variable data types.

Example: opts = setvartype(opts,'Height',{'double'}) changes the data type of the variable Height to double.

Data Types: cell | single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | int64 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | uint64 | logical | char | string | categorical | datetime

Subset of variables to import, specified as a character vector, string scalar, cell array of character vectors, string array or an array of numeric indices.

SelectedVariableNames must be a subset of names contained in the VariableNames property. By default, SelectedVariableNames contains all the variable names from the VariableNames property, which means that all variables are imported.

Use the SelectedVariableNames property to import only the variables of interest. Specify a subset of variables using the SelectedVariableNames property and use readtable to import only that subset.

Example: opts.SelectedVariableNames = {'Height','LastName'} selects only two variables, Height and LastName, for the import operation.

Example: opts.SelectedVariableNames = [1 5] selects only two variables, the first variable and the fifth variable, for the import operation.

Example: T = readtable(filename,opts) returns a table containing only the variables specified in the SelectedVariableNames property of the opts object.

Data Types: uint16 | uint32 | uint64 | char | string | cell

Type specific variable import options, returned as an array of variable import options objects. The array contains an object corresponding to each variable specified in the VariableNames property. Each object in the array contains properties that support the importing of data with a specific data type.

Variable options support these data types: numeric, text, logical, datetime, or categorical.

To query the current (or detected) options for a variable, use the getvaropts function.

To set and customize options for a variable, use the setvaropts function.

Example: opts.VariableOptions returns a collection of VariableImportOptions objects, one corresponding to each variable in the data.

Example: getvaropts(opts,'Height') returns the VariableImportOptions object for the Height variable.

Example: opts = setvaropts(opts,'Height','FillValue',0) sets the FillValue property for the variable Height to 0.

Location Properties

Sheet to read from, specified as an empty character array, a character vector or string scalar containing the sheet name, or a positive scalar integer denoting the sheet index. Based on the value specified for the Sheet property, the import function behaves as described in the table.

SpecificationBehavior
'' (default)Import data from the first sheet.
NameImport data from the matching sheet name, regardless of order of sheets in the spreadsheet file.
IntegerImport data from sheet in the position denoted by the integer, regardless of the sheet names in the spreadsheet file.

Data Types: char | string | single | double

Location of data to be imported, specified as a character vector, string scalar, cell array of character vectors, string array, positive scalar integer or an N-by-2 array of positive scalar integers. Specify DataRange using one of these forms.

Specified byBehavior

'Cell' or n

Starting Cell or Starting Row

Specify the starting cell for the data, using Excel® A1 notation. For example, A5 is the identifier for the cell at the intersection of column A and row 5.

Using the starting cell, the importing function automatically detects the extent of the data, by beginning the import at the start cell and ending at the last empty row or footer range.

Alternatively, specify the first row containing the data using the positive scalar row index.

Using the specified row index, the importing function automatically detects the extent of the data by reading from the specified first row to the end of the data or the footer range.

Example: 'A5' or 5

'Corner1:Corner2'

Rectangular Range

Specify the exact range to read using the rectangular range form, where Corner1 and Corner2 are two opposing corners that define the region to read.

The importing function only reads the data contained in the specified range. Any empty fields within the specified range are imported as missing cells.

The number of columns must match the number specified in the NumVariables property.

Example: 'A5:K50'

'Row1:Row2' or 'Column1:Column2'

Row Range or Column Range

Specify the range by identifying the beginning and ending rows using Excel row numbers.

Using the specified row range, the importing function automatically detects the column extent by reading from the first nonempty column to the end of the data, and creates one variable per column.

Example: '5:500'

Alternatively, specify the range by identifying the beginning and ending columns using Excel column letters or numbers.

Using the specified column range, the import function automatically detects the row extent by reading from the first nonempty row to the end of the data or the footer range.

The number of columns in the specified range must match the number specified in the NumVariables property.

Example: 'A:K'

[n1 n2; n3 n4;...]

Multiple Row Ranges

Specify multiple row ranges to read with an N-by-2 array containing N different row ranges.

A valid array of multiple row ranges must:

  • Specify line ranges in an increasing order, that is the first row range specified in the array appears in the file before the other row ranges.

  • Contain only non-overlapping row ranges.

Use of Inf is only supported to indicate the last range in the numeric array specifying multiple row ranges. For example, [1 3; 5 6; 8 Inf].

Example: [1 3; 5 6; 8 Inf]

''

Unspecified or Empty

Do not fetch any data.

Example: ''

Data Types: char | string | cell | single | double

Location of row names, specified as a character vector, string scalar, positive scalar integer, or an empty character array. Specify RowNamesRange as one of the values in this table.

Specified byBehavior

'Cell'

Specify the starting cell for the data, using Excel A1 notation. For example, A5 is the identifier for the cell at the intersection of column A and row 5.

The importing function identifies a name for each variable in the data.

Example: 'A5'

'Corner1:Corner2'

Rectangular Range

Specify the exact range to read using the rectangular range form, where Corner1 and Corner2 are two opposing corners that define the region to read.

The number of rows contained in RowNamesRange must match the number of data rows, and the range indicated by RowNamesRange must span only one column.

Example: 'A5:A50'

'Row1:Row2'

Row Range

Specify range by identifying the beginning and ending rows using Excel row numbers.

Row names must be in a single column.

Example: '5:50'

n

Number Index

Specify the column containing the row names using a positive scalar column index.

Example: 5

''

Unspecified or Empty

Indicate that there are no row names.

Example: ''

Data Types: char | single | double

Location of variable names, specified as a character vector, string scalar, positive scalar integer, or an empty character array. Specify VariableNamesRange as one of the values in this table.

Specified byBehavior

'Cell'

Specify the starting cell for the data, using Excel A1 notation. For example, A5 is the identifier for the cell at the intersection of column A and row 5.

The importing function reads a name for each variable in the data.

Example: 'A5'

'Corner1:Corner2'

Rectangular Range

Specify the exact range to read using the rectangular range form, where Corner1 and Corner2 are two opposing corners that define the region to read.

The number of columns must match the number specified in the NumVariables property, and the range must span only one row.

Example: 'A5:K5'

'Row1:Row2'

Row Range

Specify range by identifying the beginning and ending rows using Excel row numbers.

Must be a single row.

Example: '5:5'

n

Number Index

Specify the row containing the variable names using a positive scalar row index.

Example: 5

''

Unspecified or Empty

Indicate that there are no variable names.

Example: ''

Data Types: char | single | double

Location of variable descriptions, specified as a character vector, string scalar, positive scalar integer, or an empty character array. Specify VariableDescriptionRange as one of the values in this table.

Specified byBehavior

'Cell'

Specify the starting cell for the data, using Excel A1 notation. For example, A5 is the identifier for the cell at the intersection of column A and row 5.

The importing function reads a description for each variable in the data.

Example: 'A5'

'Corner1:Corner2'

Rectangular Range

Specify the exact range to read using the rectangular range form, where Corner1 and Corner2 are two opposing corners that define the region to read.

The number of columns must match the number specified in the NumVariables property, and the range must span only one row.

Example: 'A5:K5'

'Row1:Row2'

Row Range

Specify range by identifying the beginning and ending rows using Excel row numbers.

Must be a single row.

Example: '5:5'

n

Number Index

Specify the row containing the descriptions using a positive scalar row index.

Example: 5

''

Unspecified or Empty

Indicate that there are no variable descriptions.

Example: ''

Data Types: char | string | single | double

Location of variable units, specified as a character vector, string scalar, positive scalar integer, or an empty character array. Specify VariableUnitsRange as one of the values in this table.

Specified byBehavior

'Cell'

Specify the starting cell for the data, using Excel A1 notation. For example, A5 is the identifier for the cell at the intersection of column A and row 5.

The importing function reads a unit for each variable in the data.

Example: 'A5'

'Corner1:Corner2'

Rectangular Range

Specify the exact range to read using the rectangular range form, where Corner1 and Corner2 are two opposing corners that define the region to read.

The number of columns must match the number specified in the NumVariables property, and the range must span only one row.

Example: 'A5:K5'

'Row1:Row2'

Row Range

Specify range by identifying the beginning and ending rows using Excel row numbers.

Must be a single row.

Example: '5:5'

n

Number Index

Specify the row containing the data units using a positive scalar row index.

Example: 5

''

Unspecified or Empty

Indicate that there are no variable units.

Example: ''

Data Types: char | string | single | double

Replacement Rules

Procedure to manage missing data, specified as one of the values in this table.

Missing RuleBehavior
'fill'

Replace missing data with the contents of the FillValue property.

The FillValue property is specified in the VariableImportOptions object of the variable being imported. For more information on accessing the FillValue property, see getvaropts.

'error'Stop importing and display an error message showing the missing record and field.
'omitrow'Omit rows that contain missing data.
'omitvar'Omit variables that contain missing data.

Example: opts.MissingRule = 'omitrow';uint32

Data Types: char | string

Procedure to handle import errors, specified as one of the values in this table.

Import Error RuleBehavior
'fill'

Replace the data where the error occurred with the contents of the FillValue property.

The FillValue property is specified in the VariableImportOptions object of the variable being imported. For more information on accessing the FillValue property, see getvaropts.

'error'Stop importing and display an error message showing the error-causing record and field.
'omitrow'Omit rows where errors occur.
'omitvar'Omit variables where errors occur.

Example: opts.ImportErrorRule = 'omitvar';

Data Types: char | string

Object Functions

getvaroptsGet variable import options
setvaroptsSet variable import options
setvartypeSet variable data types
previewPreview eight rows from file using import options

Examples

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Create an import options object to read one variable from the file patients.xls.

Initialize a SpreadsheetImportOptions object, specify the variable name, variable type, and the data starting cell. Then, use the preview function with the import options object to preview the data.

opts = spreadsheetImportOptions; 
opts.VariableNames = 'LastName';
opts.VariableTypes = 'categorical';
opts.DataRange = 'A2';
preview('patients.xls',opts)
ans=8×1 table
    LastName
    ________

    Smith   
    Johnson 
    Williams
    Jones   
    Brown   
    Davis   
    Miller  
    Wilson  

Import the variable from the file.

oneVar = readtable('patients.xls',opts);
whos oneVar
  Name          Size            Bytes  Class    Attributes

  oneVar      100x1             13566  table              

Create an import options object to read multiple variables from patients.xls.

Based on the contents of your file, define the number of variables, variable names, variable types, and the data starting location.

numVars = 7;
varNames = {'LastName','Gender','Age','Location','Height','Weight','Smoker'} ;
varTypes = {'char','categorical','int32','char','double','double','logical'} ;
dataStartLoc = 'A2';

Initialize the import options object opts using the spreadsheetImportOptions function and your variable information.

opts = spreadsheetImportOptions('NumVariables',numVars,...
                                'VariableNames',varNames,...
                                'VariableTypes',varTypes,...
                                'DataRange', dataStartLoc); 

Preview the data using the preview function with the import options.

preview('patients.xls',opts)
ans=8×7 table
     LastName     Gender    Age             Location              Height    Weight    Smoker
    __________    ______    ___    ___________________________    ______    ______    ______

    'Smith'       Male      38     'County General Hospital'        71       176      true  
    'Johnson'     Male      43     'VA Hospital'                    69       163      false 
    'Williams'    Female    38     'St. Mary's Medical Center'      64       131      false 
    'Jones'       Female    40     'VA Hospital'                    67       133      false 
    'Brown'       Female    49     'County General Hospital'        64       119      false 
    'Davis'       Female    46     'St. Mary's Medical Center'      68       142      false 
    'Miller'      Female    33     'VA Hospital'                    64       142      true  
    'Wilson'      Male      40     'VA Hospital'                    68       180      false 

Import the data using readtable.

T = readtable('patients.xls',opts);
whos T
  Name        Size            Bytes  Class    Attributes

  T         100x7             32332  table              

Introduced in R2016b