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czt

Chirp Z-transform

Description

example

y = czt(x,m,w,a) returns the length-m chirp Z-transform (CZT) of x along the spiral contour on the z-plane defined by w and a through z = a*w.^-(0:m-1).

With the default values of m, w, and a, czt returns the Z-transform of x at m equally spaced points around the unit circle, a result equivalent to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of x as given by fft(x).

Examples

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Create a random vector, x, of length 1013. Compute its DFT using czt.

rng default
x = randn(1013,1);
y = czt(x);

Use czt to zoom in on a narrow-band section of a filter's frequency response.

Design a 30th-order lowpass FIR filter using the window method. Specify a sample rate of 1 kHz and a cutoff frequency of 125 Hz. Use a rectangular window. Find the transfer function of the filter.

fs = 1000;
d = designfilt('lowpassfir','FilterOrder',30,'CutoffFrequency',125, ...
    'DesignMethod','window','Window',@rectwin,'SampleRate',fs);
h = tf(d);

Compute the DFT and the CZT of the filter. Restrict the frequency range of the CZT to the band between 75 and 175 Hz. Generate 1024 samples in each case.

m = 1024;
y = fft(h,m);

f1 = 75;
f2 = 175;
w = exp(-j*2*pi*(f2-f1)/(m*fs));
a = exp(j*2*pi*f1/fs);
z = czt(h,m,w,a);

Plot the transforms. Zoom in on the area of interest.

fn = (0:m-1)'/m;
fy = fs*fn;
fz = (f2-f1)*fn + f1;

plot(fy,abs(y),fz,abs(z))
xlim([50 200])
legend('FFT','CZT')
xlabel('Frequency (Hz)')

Input Arguments

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Input signal, specified as a vector, a matrix, or a 3-D array. If x is a matrix, the function transforms the columns of x. If x is a 3-D array, the function operates along the first array dimension with size greater than 1.

Example: sin(pi./[4;2]*(0:159))' specifies a two-channel sinusoid.

Data Types: single | double
Complex Number Support: Yes

Transform length, specified as a positive integer scalar.

Data Types: single | double

Ratio between spiral contour points, specified as a complex scalar.

Data Types: single | double
Complex Number Support: Yes

Spiral contour initial point, specified as a complex scalar.

Example: exp(1j*pi/4) lies along the unit circle on the z-plane and makes an angle of 45 degrees with the real axis.

Data Types: single | double
Complex Number Support: Yes

Output Arguments

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Chirp Z-transform, returned as a vector or matrix.

Algorithms

czt uses the next power-of-2 length FFT to perform a fast convolution when computing the Z-transform on a specified chirp contour [1].

References

[1] Rabiner, Lawrence R., and Bernard Gold. Theory and Application of Digital Signal Processing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975.

Extended Capabilities

See Also

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Introduced before R2006a