bagOfNgrams

Bag-of-n-grams model

Description

A bag-of-n-grams model records the number of times that each n-gram appears in each document of a collection. An n-gram is a collection of n successive words.

bagOfNgrams does not split text into words. To create an array of tokenized documents, see tokenizedDocument.

Creation

Syntax

bag = bagOfNgrams
bag = bagOfNgrams(documents)
bag = bagOfNgrams(___,'NgramLengths',lengths)
bag = bagOfNgrams(uniqueNgrams,counts)

Description

bag = bagOfNgrams creates an empty bag-of-n-grams model.

example

bag = bagOfNgrams(documents) creates a bag-of-n-grams model and counts the bigrams (pairs of words) in documents.

example

bag = bagOfNgrams(___,'NgramLengths',lengths) counts n-grams of the specified lengths using any of the previous syntaxes.

example

bag = bagOfNgrams(uniqueNgrams,counts) creates a bag-of-n-grams model using the n-grams in uniqueNgrams and the corresponding frequency counts in counts. If uniqueNgrams contains <missing> values, then the corresponding values in counts are ignored.

Input Arguments

expand all

Input documents, specified as a tokenizedDocument array, a string array of words, or a cell array of character vectors. If documents is a string array or a cell array of character vectors, then it must be a row vector representing a single document, where each element is a word.

Unique n-gram list, specified as a NumNgrams-by-maxN string array or cell array of character vectors, where NumNgrams is the number of unique n-grams, and maxN is the length of the largest n-gram.

The value of uniqueNgrams(i,j) is the jth word of the ith n-gram. If the number of words in the ith n-gram is less than maxN, then the remaining entries of the ith row of uniqueNgrams are empty.

If uniqueNgrams contains <missing>, then the function ignores the corresponding values in counts.

Each n-gram must have at least one word.

Example: ["An" ""; "An" "example"; "example" ""]

Data Types: string | cell

Frequency counts of n-grams corresponding to the rows of uniqueNgrams, specified as a matrix of nonnegative integers. The value counts(i,j) corresponds to the number of times the n-gram uniqueNgrams(j,:) appears in the ith document.

counts must have as many columns as uniqueNgrams has rows.

Lengths of n-grams, specified as a positive integer or a vector of positive integers.

Properties

expand all

N-gram counts per document, specified as a sparse matrix.

Unique n-grams in the model, specified as a string array. Ngrams(i,j) is the jth word of the ith n-gram. If the number of columns of Ngrams is greater than the number of words in the n-gram, then the remaining entries are empty.

Lengths of n-grams, specified as a positive integer or a vector of positive integers.

Unique words in the model, specified as a string vector.

Data Types: string

Number of n-grams seen, specified as a nonnegative integer.

Number of documents seen, specified as a nonnegative integer.

Object Functions

encodeEncode documents as matrix of word or n-gram counts
tfidfTerm Frequency–Inverse Document Frequency (tf-idf) matrix
topkngramsMost frequent n-grams
addDocumentAdd documents to bag-of-words or bag-of-n-grams model
removeDocumentRemove documents from bag-of-words or bag-of-n-grams model
removeEmptyDocumentsRemove empty documents from tokenized document array, bag-of-words model, or bag-of-n-grams model
removeNgramsRemove n-grams from bag-of-n-grams model
removeInfrequentNgramsRemove infrequently seen n-grams from bag-of-n-grams model
joinCombine multiple bag-of-words or bag-of-n-grams models
wordcloudCreate word cloud chart from text, bag-of-words model, bag-of-n-grams model, or LDA model

Examples

collapse all

Load the example data. The file sonnetsPreprocessed.txt contains preprocessed versions of Shakespeare's sonnets. The file contains one sonnet per line, with words separated by a space. Extract the text from sonnetsPreprocessed.txt, split the text into documents at newline characters, and then tokenize the documents.

filename = "sonnetsPreprocessed.txt";
str = extractFileText(filename);
textData = split(str,newline);
documents = tokenizedDocument(textData);
documents(1:10)
ans = 
  10x1 tokenizedDocument:

    70 tokens: fairest creatures desire increase thereby beautys rose might never die riper time decease tender heir might bear memory thou contracted thine own bright eyes feedst thy lights flame selfsubstantial fuel making famine abundance lies thy self thy foe thy sweet self cruel thou art worlds fresh ornament herald gaudy spring thine own bud buriest thy content tender churl makst waste niggarding pity world else glutton eat worlds due grave thee
    71 tokens: forty winters shall besiege thy brow dig deep trenches thy beautys field thy youths proud livery gazed tatterd weed small worth held asked thy beauty lies treasure thy lusty days say thine own deep sunken eyes alleating shame thriftless praise praise deservd thy beautys thou couldst answer fair child mine shall sum count make old excuse proving beauty succession thine new made thou art old thy blood warm thou feelst cold
    65 tokens: look thy glass tell face thou viewest time face form another whose fresh repair thou renewest thou dost beguile world unbless mother fair whose uneard womb disdains tillage thy husbandry fond tomb selflove stop posterity thou art thy mothers glass thee calls back lovely april prime thou windows thine age shalt despite wrinkles thy golden time thou live rememberd die single thine image dies thee
    71 tokens: unthrifty loveliness why dost thou spend upon thy self thy beautys legacy natures bequest gives nothing doth lend frank lends free beauteous niggard why dost thou abuse bounteous largess thee give profitless usurer why dost thou great sum sums yet canst live traffic thy self alone thou thy self thy sweet self dost deceive nature calls thee gone acceptable audit canst thou leave thy unused beauty tombed thee lives th executor
    61 tokens: hours gentle work frame lovely gaze every eye doth dwell play tyrants same unfair fairly doth excel neverresting time leads summer hideous winter confounds sap checked frost lusty leaves quite gone beauty oersnowed bareness every summers distillation left liquid prisoner pent walls glass beautys effect beauty bereft nor nor remembrance flowers distilld though winter meet leese show substance still lives sweet
    68 tokens: let winters ragged hand deface thee thy summer ere thou distilld make sweet vial treasure thou place beautys treasure ere selfkilld forbidden usury happies pay willing loan thats thy self breed another thee ten times happier ten ten times thy self happier thou art ten thine ten times refigurd thee death thou shouldst depart leaving thee living posterity selfwilld thou art fair deaths conquest make worms thine heir
    64 tokens: lo orient gracious light lifts up burning head eye doth homage newappearing sight serving looks sacred majesty climbd steepup heavenly hill resembling strong youth middle age yet mortal looks adore beauty still attending golden pilgrimage highmost pitch weary car like feeble age reeleth day eyes fore duteous converted low tract look another way thou thyself outgoing thy noon unlookd diest unless thou get son
    70 tokens: music hear why hearst thou music sadly sweets sweets war joy delights joy why lovst thou thou receivst gladly else receivst pleasure thine annoy true concord welltuned sounds unions married offend thine ear sweetly chide thee confounds singleness parts thou shouldst bear mark string sweet husband another strikes mutual ordering resembling sire child happy mother pleasing note sing whose speechless song many seeming sings thee thou single wilt prove none
    70 tokens: fear wet widows eye thou consumst thy self single life ah thou issueless shalt hap die world wail thee like makeless wife world thy widow still weep thou form thee hast left behind every private widow well keep childrens eyes husbands shape mind look unthrift world doth spend shifts place still world enjoys beautys waste hath world end kept unused user destroys love toward others bosom sits murdrous shame commits
    69 tokens: shame deny thou bearst love thy self art unprovident grant thou wilt thou art belovd many thou none lovst evident thou art possessd murderous hate gainst thy self thou stickst conspire seeking beauteous roof ruinate repair thy chief desire o change thy thought change mind shall hate fairer lodgd gentle love thy presence gracious kind thyself least kindhearted prove make thee another self love beauty still live thine thee

Create a bag-of-n-grams model.

bag = bagOfNgrams(documents)
bag = 
  bagOfNgrams with properties:

          Counts: [154x8799 double]
      Vocabulary: [1x3092 string]
          Ngrams: [8799x2 string]
    NgramLengths: 2
       NumNgrams: 8799
    NumDocuments: 154

Visualize the model using a word cloud.

figure 
wordcloud(bag);

Load the example data. The file sonnetsPreprocessed.txt contains preprocessed versions of Shakespeare's sonnets. The file contains one sonnet per line, with words separated by a space. Extract the text from sonnetsPreprocessed.txt, split the text into documents at newline characters, and then tokenize the documents.

filename = "sonnetsPreprocessed.txt";
str = extractFileText(filename);
textData = split(str,newline);
documents = tokenizedDocument(textData);

Create a bag-of-n-grams model. To count n-grams of length 2 and 3 (bigrams and trigrams), specify 'NgramLengths' to be the vector [2 3].

bag = bagOfNgrams(documents,'NgramLengths',[2 3])
bag = 
  bagOfNgrams with properties:

          Counts: [154×18022 double]
      Vocabulary: [1×3092 string]
          Ngrams: [18022×3 string]
    NgramLengths: [2 3]
       NumNgrams: 18022
    NumDocuments: 154

View the 10 most common n-grams of length 2 (bigrams).

topkngrams(bag,10,'NGramLengths',2)
ans=10×3 table
             Ngram             Count    NgramLength
    _______________________    _____    ___________

    "thou"    "art"      ""     34           2     
    "mine"    "eye"      ""     15           2     
    "thy"     "self"     ""     14           2     
    "thou"    "dost"     ""     13           2     
    "mine"    "own"      ""     13           2     
    "thy"     "sweet"    ""     12           2     
    "thy"     "love"     ""     11           2     
    "dost"    "thou"     ""     10           2     
    "thou"    "wilt"     ""     10           2     
    "love"    "thee"     ""      9           2     

View the 10 most common n-grams of length 3 (trigrams).

 topkngrams(bag,10,'NGramLengths',3)
ans=10×3 table
               Ngram                Count    NgramLength
    ____________________________    _____    ___________

    "thy"     "sweet"    "self"       4           3     
    "why"     "dost"     "thou"       4           3     
    "thy"     "self"     "thy"        3           3     
    "thou"    "thy"      "self"       3           3     
    "mine"    "eye"      "heart"      3           3     
    "thou"    "shalt"    "find"       3           3     
    "fair"    "kind"     "true"       3           3     
    "thou"    "art"      "fair"       2           3     
    "love"    "thy"      "self"       2           3     
    "thy"     "self"     "thou"       2           3     

Create a bag-of-n-grams model using a string array of unique n-grams and a matrix of counts.

Load the example n-grams and counts from sonnetsBigramCounts.mat. This file contains a string array uniqueNgrams, which contains the unique n-grams, and the matrix counts, which contains the n-gram frequency counts.

load sonnetsBigramCounts.mat

View the first few n-grams in uniqueNgrams.

uniqueNgrams(1:10,:)
ans = 10x2 string array
    "fairest"      "creatures"
    "creatures"    "desire"   
    "desire"       "increase" 
    "increase"     "thereby"  
    "thereby"      "beautys"  
    "beautys"      "rose"     
    "rose"         "might"    
    "might"        "never"    
    "never"        "die"      
    "die"          "riper"    

Create the bag-of-n-grams model.

bag = bagOfNgrams(uniqueNgrams,counts)
bag = 
  bagOfNgrams with properties:

          Counts: [154x8799 double]
      Vocabulary: [1x3092 string]
          Ngrams: [8799x2 string]
    NgramLengths: 2
       NumNgrams: 8799
    NumDocuments: 154

Introduced in R2018a