Estimate geometric transformation from matching point pairs
Computer Vision Toolbox / Geometric Transformations
Use the Estimate Geometric Transformation block to find the transformation matrix which maps the greatest number of point pairs between two images. A point pair refers to a point in the input image and its related point on the image created using the transformation matrix. You can select to use the RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) or the Least Median Squares algorithm to exclude outliers and to calculate the transformation matrix. You can also use all input points to calculate the transformation matrix.
Pts1
— Point coordinatesPoint coordinates, specified as an Mby2 matrix of onebased [x y] point coordinates, where M represents the number of points.
The block outputs the same data type for the transformation matrix as the Pts1 and Pts 2 image points.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
Pts2
— Point coordinatesPoint coordinates, specified as an Mby2 matrix of onebased [x y] point coordinates, where M represents the number of points.
The block outputs the same data type for the transformation matrix as the Pts1 and Pts 2 image points.
Data Types: single
 double
 int8
 int16
 int32
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
Num
— Number of valid pointsScalar value that represents the number of valid points in Pts1 and Pts 2.
Data Types: int8
 int16
 int32
 uint8
 uint16
 uint32
TForm
— TransformationTransformation, returned as either a 3by2 or a 3by3 matrix. The block outputs the same data type for the transformation matrix as the Pts1 and Pts 2 image points.
When Pts1 and Pts 2 are single or double, the output transformation matrix will also have single or double data type.
When Pts1 and Pts 2 images are
builtin integers, the option is available to set the transformation matrix data
type to either Single
or Double
.
Data Types: single
 double
Inlier
— Points usedPoints used to calculate TForm
, returned as an
Mby1 vector.
The Inlier port appears when you enable the Output Boolean signal indicating which point pairs are inliers parameter.
Data Types: Boolean
Transformation type
— Transformation typeAffine
(default)  Nonreflective similarity
 Projective
Specify the transformation type as either Nonreflective
similarity
, Affine
, or
Projective
. See Transformations for a
more detailed discussion.
You can set additional parameters depending on the transformation type:
For Projective
transformation, you can specify a
scalar algebraic distance threshold for determining inliers.
For Affine
or Projective
transformation, you can specify the distance threshold for determining inliers in
pixels.
Find and exclude outliers
— Find and exclude outliersEnable to find and exclude outliers from the input points and use only the inlier points to calculate the transformation matrix. When you turn this parameter off, all input points are used to calculate the transformation matrix.
Method
— Method to find outliersRANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC)
(default)  Least Median of Squares
Select the method to find outliers as either RANdom SAmple Consensus
(RANSAC)
or Least Median of Squares
See RANSAC and Least Median Squares Algorithms for a more detailed
discussion.
This parameter appears when you enable the Find and exclude outliers check box.
Algebraic distance threshold for determining inliers
— Algebraic distance threshold for determining inliersSpecify a scalar threshold value for determining inliers. The threshold controls the upper limit used to find the algebraic distance in the RANSAC algorithm.
This parameter appears when you set the Method parameter to
Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC)
and the
Transformation type parameter to
Projective
.
Distance threshold for determining inliers (in pixels)
— Distance threshold for determining inliers (in pixels)1.5
(default)  scalarSpecify the upper limit distance a point can differ from the projection location of its corresponding point.
This parameter appears when you set the Method parameter to
Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC)
and you set the value of
the Transformation type parameter to Nonreflective
similarity
or Affine
.
Determine number of random samplings using
— Determine number of random samplings usingSpecified value
(default)  Desired confidence
Select Specified value
to enter a positive integer value
for the number of random samplings. Select Desired
confidence
to set the number of random samplings as a percentage and a
maximum number.
This parameter appears when you select the Find and exclude
outliers check box, and you set the value of the
Method parameter to Random Sample Consensus
(RANSAC)
.
Number of random samplings
— Number of random samplings500
(default)  scalarSpecify the number of random samplings for the algorithm to perform.
This parameter appears when you set the value of the Determine number of
random samplings using parameter to Specified
value
.
Desired confidence (in %)
— Desired confidence (in %)99
(default)  scalarSpecify a percent desired confidence by entering a number between
0
and 100
. The value represents the probability
of the algorithm to find the largest group of points that can be mapped by a
transformation matrix.
This parameter appears when you set the Determine number of random
samplings using parameter to Desired
confidence
.
Maximum number of random samplings
— Maximum number of random samplings1000
(default)  integerSpecify an integer number for the maximum number of random samplings.
This parameter appears when you set the Method parameter to
Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC)
and you set the value of
the Determine number of random samplings using parameter to
Desired confidence
.
Stop sampling earlier when a specified percentage of point pairs are determined to be inlier
— Stop samplingEnable this parameter to stop random sampling when a percentage of input points have been found as inliers.
This parameter appears when you set the Method parameter to
Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC)
.
Perform additional iterative refinement of the transformation matrix
— Perform additional iterative refinementSpecify whether to perform refinement on the transformation matrix.
This parameter appears when you select Find and exclude outliers check box.
Output Boolean signal indicating which point pairs are inliers
— Output Boolean signalEnable this parameter to output the inlier point pairs that were used to calculate the transformation matrix.
This parameter appears when you select the Find and exclude outliers check box.
The block will not use this parameter with signed or double, data type points.
When Pts1 and Pts2 are builtin integers, set transformation matrix date type to
— Set transformation matrix date typeSingle
(default)  Double
Specify transformation matrix data type as Single
or
Double
when the input points are builtin integers.
The block will not use this parameter with signed or double, data type points.
Allow variablesized signal input
— Allow variablesized signal inputEnable this parameter to allow variablesized signal input.
Data Types 

Multidimensional Signals 

VariableSize Signals 

^{[a]} Generated code will be restricted to MATLAB host computers when you set the FFT implementation parameter to FFTW, or when the transform length is not a power of two. 
The RANSAC algorithm relies on a distance threshold. A pair of points, $${p}_{i}^{a}$$(image a, Pts1) and $${p}_{i}^{b}$$(image b, Pts 2) is an inlier only when the distance between $${p}_{i}^{b}$$ and the projection of $${p}_{i}^{a}$$based on the transformation matrix falls within the specified threshold. The distance metric used in the RANSAC algorithm is as follows:
$$d={\displaystyle \sum _{i=1}^{Num}\mathrm{min}(D({p}_{i}^{b},}\psi ({p}_{i}^{a}:H)),t)$$
The Least Median Squares algorithm assumes at least 50% of the point pairs can be mapped by a transformation matrix. The algorithm does not need to explicitly specify the distance threshold. Instead, it uses the median distance between all input point pairs. The distance metric used in the Least Median of Squares algorithm is as follows:
$$d=median(D({p}_{1}^{b},\psi ({p}_{1}^{a}:H)),D({p}_{2}^{b},\psi ({p}_{2}^{a}:H)),\mathrm{...},D({p}_{Num}^{b},\psi ({p}_{N}^{a}:H)))$$
For both equations:
$${p}_{i}^{a}$$ is a point in image a
(Pts1
)
$${p}_{i}^{b}$$ is a point in image b
(Pts2
)
$$\psi ({p}_{i}^{a}:H)$$ is the projection of a point on image a based on transformation matrix H
$$D({p}_{i}^{b},{p}_{j}^{b})$$ is the distance between two point pairs on image b
$$t$$ is the threshold
$$Num$$is the number of points
The smaller the distance metric, the better the transformation matrix and therefore the more accurate the projection image.
The Estimate Geometric Transformation block supports Nonreflective
similarity
, Affine
, and
Projective
transformation types, which are described in this
section.
Nonreflective similarity transformation supports translation, rotation, and isotropic scaling. It has four degrees of freedom and requires two pairs of points.
The transformation matrix is: $$H=\left[\begin{array}{cc}{h}_{1}& {h}_{2}\\ {h}_{2}& {h}_{1}\\ {h}_{3}& {h}_{4}\end{array}\right]$$
The projection of a point $${\left[\begin{array}{cc}x& y\end{array}\right]}^{}$$ by $$H$$is: $${\left[\begin{array}{cc}\widehat{x}& \widehat{y}\end{array}\right]}^{}=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}x& y& 1\end{array}\right]H$$
affine transformation supports nonisotropic scaling in addition to all transformations that the nonreflective similarity transformation supports. It has six degrees of freedom that can be determined from three pairs of noncollinear points.
The transformation matrix is: $$H=\left[\begin{array}{cc}{h}_{1}& {h}_{4}\\ {h}_{2}& {h}_{5}\\ {h}_{3}& {h}_{6}\end{array}\right]$$
The projection of a point $${\left[\begin{array}{cc}x& y\end{array}\right]}^{}$$ by $$H$$is: $${\left[\begin{array}{cc}\widehat{x}& \widehat{y}\end{array}\right]}^{}=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}x& y& 1\end{array}\right]H$$
Projective transformation supports tilting in addition to all transformations that the affine transformation supports.
The transformation matrix is : $$h=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{h}_{1}& {h}_{4}& {h}_{7}\\ {h}_{2}& {h}_{5}& {h}_{8}\\ {h}_{3}& {h}_{6}& {h}_{9}\end{array}\right]$$
The projection of a point $${\left[\begin{array}{cc}x& y\end{array}\right]}^{}$$ by $$H$$is represented by homogeneous coordinates as: $${\left[\begin{array}{ccc}\widehat{u}& \widehat{v}& \widehat{w}\end{array}\right]}^{}=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}x& y& 1\end{array}\right]H$$
For computational simplicity and efficiency, this block uses algebraic distance. The algebraic distance for a pair of points, $${\left[\begin{array}{cc}{x}^{a}& {y}^{a}\end{array}\right]}^{T}$$ on image a, and $$\left[\begin{array}{cc}{x}^{b}& {y}^{b}\end{array}\right]$$ on image b , according to transformation $$H,$$is defined as follows;
For projective transformation:
$$D({p}_{i}^{b},\psi ({p}_{i}^{a}:H))={({({\widehat{u}}^{a}{\widehat{w}}^{a}{x}^{b})}^{2}+{({\widehat{v}}^{a}{\widehat{w}}^{a}{y}^{b})}^{2})}^{\frac{1}{2}}$$, where $$\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{\widehat{u}}^{a}& {\widehat{v}}^{a}& {\widehat{w}}^{a}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{x}^{a}& {y}^{a}& 1\end{array}\right]H$$
For Nonreflective similarity or affine transformation: $$D({p}_{i}^{b},\psi ({p}_{i}^{a}:H))={({({\widehat{x}}^{a}{x}^{b})}^{2}+{({\widehat{y}}^{a}{\widehat{y}}^{b})}^{2})}^{\frac{1}{2}}$$,
where $${\left[\begin{array}{cc}{\widehat{x}}^{a}& {\widehat{y}}^{a}\end{array}\right]}^{}=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{x}^{a}& {y}^{a}& 1\end{array}\right]H$$
The block performs a comparison and repeats it K number of times between successive transformation matrices. If you select the Find and exclude outliers option, the RANSAC and Least Median Squares (LMS) algorithms become available. These algorithms calculate and compare a distance metric. The transformation matrix that produces the smaller distance metric becomes the new transformation matrix that the next comparison uses. A final transformation matrix is resolved when either:
K number of random samplings is performed
The RANSAC algorithm, when enough number of inlier point pairs can be mapped, (dynamically updating K)
The Estimate Geometric Transformation algorithm follows these steps:
A transformation matrix $$H$$ is initialized to zeros
Set count = 0
(Randomly sampling).
While count < K
, where K
is total number
of random samplings to perform, perform the following;
Increment the count; count = count + 1
.
Randomly select pair of points from images a and b, (2 pairs for Nonreflective similarity, 3 pairs for affine, or 4 pairs for projective).
Calculate a transformation matrix $$H$$, from the selected points.
If $$H$$has a distance metric less than that of $$H$$, then replace $$H$$ with $$H$$.
(Optional for RANSAC algorithm only)
Update K
dynamically.
Exit out of sampling loop if enough number of point pairs can be mapped by $$H$$.
Use all point pairs in images a and b that can be mapped by $$H$$ to calculate a refined transformation matrix $$H$$
Iterative Refinement, (Optional for RANSAC and LMS algorithms)
Denote all point pairs that can be mapped by $$H$$ as inliers.
Use inlier point pairs to calculate a transformation matrix $$H$$.
If $$H$$has a distance metric less than that of $$H$$, then replace $$H$$ with $$H$$, otherwise exit the loop.
The number of random samplings can be specified by the user for the RANSAC and Least Median Squares algorithms. You can use an additional option with the RANSAC algorithm, which calculates this number based on an accuracy requirement. The Desired Confidence level drives the accuracy.
The calculated number of random samplings, K used with the RANSAC algorithm, is as follows:
$$K={\scriptscriptstyle \frac{\mathrm{log}(1p)}{\mathrm{log}(1{q}^{s})}}$$
where
p is the probability of independent point pairs belonging to the largest group that can be mapped by the same transformation. The probability is dynamically calculated based on the number of inliers found versus the total number of points. As the probability increases, the number of samplings, K , decreases.
q is the probability of finding the largest group that can be mapped by the same transformation.
s is equal to the value 2, 3, or 4 for Nonreflective similarity, affine, and projective transformation, respectively.
The transformation matrix calculated from all inliers can be used to calculate a refined transformation matrix. The refined transformation matrix is then used to find a new set of inliers. This procedure can be repeated until the transformation matrix cannot be further improved. This iterative refinement is optional.
[1] R. Hartley and A. Ziserman, “Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision,” Second edition, Cambridge University Press, 2003
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