This behavior is caused by a bug in the MATLAB license management system. On Linux only, when using the Turkish locale (tr_TR), MATLAB will fail to start (with both standalone and served licenses). The error that appears is License Manager Error -8.
A temporary workaround is to change the locale of your computer to English.
If you still receive this error, or if you do not want your default language to be English, please contact MathWorks Installation Support.