I have a set of data, say on a scatter plot, and I have a line that has a pre-determined slope (i.e. not determined by the data on the scatter plot but determined by ideal calculations). I would like to move the line through the data until it has the least amount of offset (like least-squares fitting) but without changing the slope of the line. Is there a least-squares fitting function that lets you pre-determine the slope?
Yes, you can do that following the pattern of the linear regression fitting with little modification. In linear regression, we fit the equation
a*x+b = y
and in MATLAB we write it as
to get a and b. But since you already know slope a, your equation become
b = y-a*x
so in MATLAB use
it will give you the value of b which minimize the least square error.