You can move it, but it's highly possible that there will be things that will stop working properly if you do ... for example, if you put a symlink in /bin to launch MATLAB, that will no longer work. If you have desktop shortcuts / launchers, those will now be out of date. Your MATLAB path may be messed up.
The installer does all the "right" things for an install to work properly, it's probably going to end up being a wash versus trying the do it yourself route.
Linux would be the easiest to attempt this with, as you don't have the added complexity of things like the Registry in Windows, in addition to the uninstall scripts. Mac might allow this, but there might also be dependencies that the installer sets up (e.g. plist files) that wont' be updated.