There is no direct callback that gets executed when XLim/YLim property of the axes changes. But it is possible to create a callback function which will listen to the XLim/YLim property and get executed whenever XLim/YLim changes value.
In order to create a callback function, which gets fired when the XLim value changes, create an event listener using ADDLISTENER for the current axis. Then create a callback function in the same directory and assign it as the PostSet callback of the 'XLim' property.
The attached file, testCallback.m, and the callback function, Callbackfcn, illustrate this.