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Greatest common divisor

`G = gcd(A,B)`

```
[G,U,V]
= gcd(A,B)
```

`g = gcd(A,B)`

is calculated using the Euclidian
algorithm.[1]

`[g,u,v] = gcd(A,B)`

is calculated using the
extended Euclidian algorithm.[1]

[1] Knuth, D. “Algorithms A and X.” *The
Art of Computer Programming, Vol. 2*, Section 4.5.2. Reading,
MA: Addison-Wesley, 1973.