join

Combine two tables or timetables by rows using key variables

Description

example

T = join(Tleft,Tright) combines tables or timetables Tleft and Tright using key variables. All variables with the same names in both tables are key variables. A table join appends rows from the right table where its key variables match values in the key variables of the left table. For example, if Tleft has variables named Key1 and Var1, and Tright has variables Key1 and Var2, then T=join(Tleft,Tright) uses Key1 as a key variable.

The matching values of the key variables in the left and right tables do not have to be in the same order. Also, the key variables of Tright must contain all values in the key variables of Tleft. Each value must occur only once in the key variables of Tright, but can occur multiple times in the key variables of Tleft.

The inputs can be tables, timetables, or one of each.

  • If Tleft is a table, then join returns T as a table.

  • If Tleft is a timetable, then join returns T as a timetable.

The vectors of row labels of Tleft and Tright can be key variables. Row labels are the row names of a table, or the row times of a timetable.

example

T = join(Tleft,Tright,Name,Value) joins the tables or timetables with additional options specified by one or more Name,Value pair arguments.

For example, you can specify which variables to use as key variables.

example

[T,iright] = join(___) also returns an index vector iright such that each element of iright identifies the row in Tright that corresponds to that row in T. You can use this syntax with any of the input arguments of the previous syntaxes.

Examples

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Create a table, Tleft.

Tleft = table({'Janice','Jonas','Javier','Jerry','Julie'}',[1;2;1;2;1],...
        'VariableNames',{'Employee' 'Department'})
Tleft=5×2 table
     Employee     Department
    __________    __________

    {'Janice'}        1     
    {'Jonas' }        2     
    {'Javier'}        1     
    {'Jerry' }        2     
    {'Julie' }        1     

Create a table, Tright, with a variable in common with Tleft.

Tright = table([1 2]',{'Mary' 'Mona'}',...
         'VariableNames',{'Department' 'Manager'})
Tright=2×2 table
    Department    Manager 
    __________    ________

        1         {'Mary'}
        2         {'Mona'}

Create a new table, T, containing data from tables Tleft and Tright. Use the join function to repeat and append Manager data from table Tright to the data from table Tleft, based on the key variable, Department.

T = join(Tleft,Tright)
T=5×3 table
     Employee     Department    Manager 
    __________    __________    ________

    {'Janice'}        1         {'Mary'}
    {'Jonas' }        2         {'Mona'}
    {'Javier'}        1         {'Mary'}
    {'Jerry' }        2         {'Mona'}
    {'Julie' }        1         {'Mary'}

Create a table, Tleft.

Tleft = table([5;12;23;2;6],...
        {'cereal';'pizza';'salmon';'cookies';'pizza'},...
        'VariableNames',{'Age','FavoriteFood'},...
        'RowNames',{'Amy','Bobby','Holly','Harry','Sally'})
Tleft=5×2 table
             Age    FavoriteFood
             ___    ____________

    Amy       5     {'cereal' } 
    Bobby    12     {'pizza'  } 
    Holly    23     {'salmon' } 
    Harry     2     {'cookies'} 
    Sally     6     {'pizza'  } 

Create a table, Tright, with one variable in common with Tleft.

Tright = table({'cereal';'cookies';'pizza';'salmon';'cake'},...
         [110;160;140;367;243],...
         {'B';'D';'B-';'A';'C-'},...
         'VariableNames',{'FavoriteFood','Calories','NutritionGrade'})
Tright=5×3 table
    FavoriteFood    Calories    NutritionGrade
    ____________    ________    ______________

    {'cereal' }       110           {'B' }    
    {'cookies'}       160           {'D' }    
    {'pizza'  }       140           {'B-'}    
    {'salmon' }       367           {'A' }    
    {'cake'   }       243           {'C-'}    

Create a new table, T, with data from tables Tleft and Tright. The variable in common, FavoriteFood, is used as a key variable by the join function.

T = join(Tleft,Tright)
T=5×4 table
             Age    FavoriteFood    Calories    NutritionGrade
             ___    ____________    ________    ______________

    Amy       5     {'cereal' }       110           {'B' }    
    Bobby    12     {'pizza'  }       140           {'B-'}    
    Holly    23     {'salmon' }       367           {'A' }    
    Harry     2     {'cookies'}       160           {'D' }    
    Sally     6     {'pizza'  }       140           {'B-'}    

Table T does not include information from the last row of table Tright about 'cake' because there is no corresponding entry in table Tleft.

Create a table, Tleft.

Tleft = table([10;4;2;3;7],[5;4;9;6;1],[10;3;8;8;4])
Tleft=5×3 table
    Var1    Var2    Var3
    ____    ____    ____

     10      5       10 
      4      4        3 
      2      9        8 
      3      6        8 
      7      1        4 

Create a table, Tright, giving Var2 of table Tright the same contents as Var2 from table Tleft.

Tright = table([6;1;1;6;8],[5;4;9;6;1])
Tright=5×2 table
    Var1    Var2
    ____    ____

     6       5  
     1       4  
     1       9  
     6       6  
     8       1  

Create a new table, T, containing data from tables Tleft and Tright. Use Var2 in tables Tleft and Tright as the key variable to the join function.

T = join(Tleft,Tright,'Keys','Var2')
T=5×4 table
    Var1_Tleft    Var2    Var3    Var1_Tright
    __________    ____    ____    ___________

        10         5       10          6     
         4         4        3          1     
         2         9        8          1     
         3         6        8          6     
         7         1        4          8     

join adds a unique suffix to the nonkey variable, Var1, to distinguish the data from tables Tleft and Tright.

Create a new table with data from tables Tleft and Tright. If any nonkey variables have the same name in both tables, keep only the copy from table Tleft.

Create a table, Tleft.

Tleft = table([10;4;2;3;7],[5;4;9;6;1])
Tleft=5×2 table
    Var1    Var2
    ____    ____

     10      5  
      4      4  
      2      9  
      3      6  
      7      1  

Create a table, Tright, giving Var2 of table Tright the same contents as Var2 from table Tleft.

Tright = table([6;1;1;6;8],[5;4;9;6;1],[10;3;8;8;4])
Tright=5×3 table
    Var1    Var2    Var3
    ____    ____    ____

     6       5       10 
     1       4        3 
     1       9        8 
     6       6        8 
     8       1        4 

Create a new table, T, with data from tables Tleft and Tright. Use Var2 as a key variable to the join function and keep only the copy of Var1 from table Tleft. The output table T does not contain the Var1 data from table Tright.

T = join(Tleft,Tright,'Keys','Var2','KeepOneCopy','Var1')
T=5×3 table
    Var1    Var2    Var3
    ____    ____    ____

     10      5       10 
      4      4        3 
      2      9        8 
      3      6        8 
      7      1        4 

Create a table, Tleft.

Tleft = table(['M';'M';'F';'F';'F'],[38;43;38;40;49],...
        'VariableNames',{'Gender' 'Age'},...
        'RowNames',{'Smith' 'Johnson' 'Williams' 'Jones' 'Brown'})
Tleft=5×2 table
                Gender    Age
                ______    ___

    Smith         M       38 
    Johnson       M       43 
    Williams      F       38 
    Jones         F       40 
    Brown         F       49 

Create a table, Tright, such that the rows of Tleft and the rows of Tright have a one-to-one correspondence.

Tright = table([64;69;67;71;64],...
         [119;163;133;176;131],...
         [122 80; 109 77; 117 75; 124 93; 125 83],...
         'VariableNames',{'Height' 'Weight' 'BloodPressure'},...
         'RowNames',{'Brown' 'Johnson' 'Jones' 'Smith' 'Williams'})
Tright=5×3 table
                Height    Weight    BloodPressure
                ______    ______    _____________

    Brown         64       119       122     80  
    Johnson       69       163       109     77  
    Jones         67       133       117     75  
    Smith         71       176       124     93  
    Williams      64       131       125     83  

Create a new table, T, with data from tables Tleft and Tright. Use the vectors of row names as key variables. (The name of the vector of row names of a table is 'Row', as shown by Tleft.Properties.DimensionNames{1}.)

T = join(Tleft,Tright,'Keys','Row')
T=5×5 table
                Gender    Age    Height    Weight    BloodPressure
                ______    ___    ______    ______    _____________

    Smith         M       38       71       176       124     93  
    Johnson       M       43       69       163       109     77  
    Williams      F       38       64       131       125     83  
    Jones         F       40       67       133       117     75  
    Brown         F       49       64       119       122     80  

The rows of T are in the same order as Tleft.

Create a table, Tleft.

Tleft = table([10;4;2;3;7],[5;4;9;6;1],[10;3;8;8;4])
Tleft=5×3 table
    Var1    Var2    Var3
    ____    ____    ____

     10      5       10 
      4      4        3 
      2      9        8 
      3      6        8 
      7      1        4 

Create a table, Tright, giving Var2 of table Tright the same contents as Var1 from table Tleft, but in a different order.

Tright = table([6;1;1;6;8],[2;3;4;7;10])
Tright=5×2 table
    Var1    Var2
    ____    ____

     6        2 
     1        3 
     1        4 
     6        7 
     8       10 

Create a new table, T, containing data from tables Tleft and Tright. Use Var1 from table Tleft with Var2 from table Tright as key variables to the join function.

[T,iright] = join(Tleft,Tright,'LeftKeys',1,'RightKeys',2)
T=5×4 table
    Var1_Tleft    Var2    Var3    Var1_Tright
    __________    ____    ____    ___________

        10         5       10          8     
         4         4        3          1     
         2         9        8          6     
         3         6        8          1     
         7         1        4          6     

iright = 5×1

     5
     3
     1
     2
     4

T is the horizontal concatenation of Tleft and Tright(iright,1).

Create two timetables that have the same row times but different variables.

Traffic = [0.8 0.9 0.1 0.7 0.9]';
Noise = [0 1 1.5 2 2.3]';
Tleft = timetable(hours(1:5)',Traffic,Noise)
Tleft=5×3 timetable
    Time    Traffic    Noise
    ____    _______    _____

    1 hr      0.8         0 
    2 hr      0.9         1 
    3 hr      0.1       1.5 
    4 hr      0.7         2 
    5 hr      0.9       2.3 

Distance = [0.88 0.86 0.91 0.9 0.86]';
Tright = timetable(hours(1:5)',Distance)
Tright=5×2 timetable
    Time    Distance
    ____    ________

    1 hr      0.88  
    2 hr      0.86  
    3 hr      0.91  
    4 hr       0.9  
    5 hr      0.86  

Merge the timetables. join uses the row times as the key variables.

T = join(Tleft,Tright)
T=5×4 timetable
    Time    Traffic    Noise    Distance
    ____    _______    _____    ________

    1 hr      0.8         0       0.88  
    2 hr      0.9         1       0.86  
    3 hr      0.1       1.5       0.91  
    4 hr      0.7         2        0.9  
    5 hr      0.9       2.3       0.86  

Create a timetable and a table.

Measurements = [0.13 0.22 0.31 0.42 0.53 0.57 0.67 0.81 0.90 1.00]';
Device = ['A';'B';'A';'B';'A';'B';'A';'B';'A';'B'];
Tleft = timetable(seconds(1:10)',Measurements,Device)
Tleft=10×3 timetable
     Time     Measurements    Device
    ______    ____________    ______

    1 sec         0.13          A   
    2 sec         0.22          B   
    3 sec         0.31          A   
    4 sec         0.42          B   
    5 sec         0.53          A   
    6 sec         0.57          B   
    7 sec         0.67          A   
    8 sec         0.81          B   
    9 sec          0.9          A   
    10 sec           1          B   

Device = ['A';'B'];
Accuracy = [0.023;0.037];
Tright = table(Device,Accuracy)
Tright=2×2 table
    Device    Accuracy
    ______    ________

      A        0.023  
      B        0.037  

Merge the timetable and table. Device is the key variable because both Tleft and Tright have a variable with that name. T is a timetable.

T = join(Tleft,Tright)
T=10×4 timetable
     Time     Measurements    Device    Accuracy
    ______    ____________    ______    ________

    1 sec         0.13          A        0.023  
    2 sec         0.22          B        0.037  
    3 sec         0.31          A        0.023  
    4 sec         0.42          B        0.037  
    5 sec         0.53          A        0.023  
    6 sec         0.57          B        0.037  
    7 sec         0.67          A        0.023  
    8 sec         0.81          B        0.037  
    9 sec          0.9          A        0.023  
    10 sec           1          B        0.037  

Input Arguments

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Left table, specified as a table or a timetable. For all key variables, each row of Tleft must match exactly one row in Tright.

Right table, specified as a table or a timetable. For all key variables, each row of Tright must match exactly one row in Tleft.

Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of Name,Value arguments. Name is the argument name and Value is the corresponding value. Name must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN.

Example: 'Keys',2 uses the second variable in Tleft and the second variable in Tright as key variables.

Variables to use as keys, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Keys' and a positive integer, vector of positive integers, character vector, cell array of character vectors, string array, logical vector, or 'RowNames'.

You cannot use the 'Keys' name-value pair argument with the 'LeftKeys' and 'RightKeys' name-value pair arguments.

A vector of row labels can be a key variable. Row labels are the row names of a table or the row times of a timetable. You can specify 'Keys' as the row labels only, as one or more variables in Tleft and Tright, or as row labels and variables together.

Example: 'Keys',[1 3] uses the first and third variables from Tleft and Tright as key variables.

Example: 'Keys',{'X','Y'} uses the variables named X and Y in Tleft and Tright as key variables.

Example: 'Keys','Row' uses the vectors of row names of Tleft and Tright as key variables, if both Tleft and Tright are tables with row names.

Variables to use as keys in Tleft, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'LeftKeys' and a positive integer, vector of positive integers, character vector, cell array of character vectors, string array, or logical vector.

You must use the 'LeftKeys' name-value pair argument in conjunction with the 'RightKeys' name-value pair argument. 'LeftKeys' and 'RightKeys' both must specify the same number of key variables. join pairs key values in Tleft and Tright based on their order.

A vector of row labels can be a key variable. Row labels are the row names of a table or the row times of a timetable. You can specify 'LeftKeys' as the row labels of Tleft, as one or more variables in Tleft, or as row labels and variables together.

Example: 'LeftKeys',1 uses only the first variable in Tleft as a key variable.

Variables to use as keys in Tright, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'RightKeys' and a positive integer, vector of positive integers, character vector, cell array of character vectors, string array, or logical vector.

You must use the 'RightKeys' name-value pair argument in conjunction with the 'LeftKeys' name-value pair argument. 'LeftKeys' and 'RightKeys' both must specify the same number of key variables. join pairs key values in Tleft and Tright based on their order.

A vector of row labels can be a key variable. Row labels are the row names of a table or the row times of a timetable. You can specify 'RightKeys' as the row labels of Tright, as one or more variables in Tright, or as row labels and variables together.

Example: 'RightKeys',3 uses only the third variable in Tright as a key variable.

Variables from Tleft to include in T, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'LeftVariables' and a positive integer, vector of positive integers, character vector, cell array of character vectors, string array, or logical vector.

You can use 'LeftVariables' to include or exclude key variables, as well as nonkey variables, from T. However, you cannot include row names or row times from Tleft, because they are not variables.

By default, join includes all variables from Tleft.

Variables from Tright to include in T, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'RightVariables' and a positive integer, vector of positive integers, character vector, cell array of character vectors, string array, or logical vector.

You can use 'RightVariables' to include or exclude key variables, as well as nonkey variables, from T. However, you cannot include row names or row times from Tright, because they are not variables.

By default, join includes all variables from Tright except the key variables.

Variables for which join retains only the copy from Tleft, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'KeepOneCopy' and a character vector, cell array of character vectors, or string array that specifies variable names.

Key variables appear once in T, but if nonkey variables with identical names occur in Tleft and Tright, then join retains both copies in T by default. Use the 'KeepOneCopy' name-value pair to retain only the copy from Tleft.

Example: 'KeepOneCopy',Var2 keeps only the copy from Tleft of the nonkey variable Var2.

Output Arguments

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Merged data from Tleft and Tright, returned as a table or a timetable. The table, T, contains one row for each row in Tleft, appearing in the same order.

join creates T by horizontally concatenating Tleft(:,LeftVars) and Tright(iright,RightVars). By default, LeftVars is all the variables of Tleft, and RightVars is all the nonkey variables from Tright. Otherwise, LeftVars consists of the variables specified by the 'LeftVariables' name-value pair argument, and RightVars consists of the variables specified by the 'RightVariables' name-value pair argument.

If Tleft and Tright contain nonkey variables with the same name, join adds a unique suffix to the corresponding variable names in T, unless you specify the 'KeepOneCopy' name-value pair argument.

If Tleft is a table, then T is also a table. If Tleft is a timetable and Tright is either a timetable or a table, then T is a timetable.

You can store additional metadata in T, such as descriptions, variable units, variable names, and row names. For more information, see the Properties sections of table or timetable.

Index to Tright, returned as a column vector. Each element of iright identifies the row in Tright that corresponds to that row in the output table or timetable, T.

More About

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Key Variable

Variable used to match and combine data between input tables Tleft and Tright.

Key Value

Value in a key variable of Tleft or Tright.

Algorithms

The join function first finds one or more key variables. Then, join uses the key variables to find the row in input table Tright that matches each row in input table Tleft, and combines those rows to create a row in output table T.

  • If there is a one-to-one mapping between key values in Tleft and Tright, then join sorts the data in Tright and appends it to table Tleft.

  • If there is a many-to-one mapping between key values in Tleft and Tright, then join sorts and repeats the data in Tright before appending it to table Tleft.

  • If there is data in a key variable of Tright that does not map to a key value in Tleft, then join does not include that data in the output table, T.

Extended Capabilities

Introduced in R2013b