dlnetwork

Deep learning network for custom training loops

Description

A dlnetwork object enables support for custom training loops using automatic differentiation.

Tip

For most deep learning tasks, you can use a pretrained network and adapt it to your own data. For an example showing how to use transfer learning to retrain a convolutional neural network to classify a new set of images, see Train Deep Learning Network to Classify New Images. Alternatively, you can create and train networks from scratch using layerGraph objects with the trainNetwork and trainingOptions functions.

If the trainingOptions function does not provide the training options that you need for your task, then you can create a custom training loop using automatic differentiation. To learn more, see Define Custom Training Loops.

Creation

Description

example

dlnet = dlnetwork(lgraph) converts a layer graph to a dlnetwork object representing a deep neural network for custom training loops.

Input Arguments

expand all

Network architecture, specified as a layer graph.

The layer graph must not contain output layers. When training the network, calculate the loss separately.

For a list of layers supported by dlnetwork, see Supported Layers.

Properties

expand all

Network layers, specified as a Layer array.

Layer connections, specified as a table with two columns.

Each table row represents a connection in the layer graph. The first column, Source, specifies the source of each connection. The second column, Destination, specifies the destination of each connection. The connection sources and destinations are either layer names or have the form 'layerName/IOName', where 'IOName' is the name of the layer input or output.

Data Types: table

Network learnable parameters, specified as a table with three columns:

  • Layer – Layer name, specified as a string scalar.

  • Parameter – Parameter name, specified as a string scalar.

  • Value – Value of parameter, specified as a dlarray.

The network learnable parameters contain the features learned by the network. For example, the weights of convolution and fully connected layers.

Data Types: table

Network state, specified as a table.

The network state is a table with three columns:

  • Layer – Layer name, specified as a string scalar.

  • Parameter – Parameter name, specified as a string scalar.

  • Value – Value of parameter, specified as a numeric array object.

The network state contains information remembered by the network between iterations. For example, the state of LSTM and batch normalization layers.

During training or inference, you can update the network state using the output of the forward and predict functions.

Data Types: table

Object Functions

forwardCompute deep learning network output for training
predictCompute deep learning network output for inference
layerGraphGraph of network layers for deep learning

Examples

collapse all

To implement a custom training loop for your network, first convert it to a dlnetwork object. Do not include output layers in a dlnetwork object. Instead, you must specify the loss function in the custom training loop.

Load a pretrained GoogLeNet model using the googlenet function. This function requires the Deep Learning Toolbox™ Model for GoogLeNet Network support package. If this support package is not installed, then the function provides a download link.

net = googlenet;

Convert the network to a layer graph and remove the layers used for classification using removeLayers.

lgraph = layerGraph(net);
lgraph = removeLayers(lgraph,["prob" "output"]);

Convert the network to a dlnetwork object.

dlnet = dlnetwork(lgraph)
dlnet = 
  dlnetwork with properties:

         Layers: [142x1 nnet.cnn.layer.Layer]
    Connections: [168x2 table]
     Learnables: [116x3 table]
          State: [0x3 table]

This example shows how to train a network that classifies handwritten digits with a custom learning rate schedule.

If trainingOptions does not provide the options you need (for example, a custom learning rate schedule), then you can define your own custom training loop using automatic differentiation.

This example trains a network to classify handwritten digits with the time-based decay learning rate schedule: for each iteration, the solver uses the learning rate given by ρt=ρ01+kt, where t is the iteration number, ρ0 is the initial learning rate, and k is the decay.

Load Training Data

Load the digits data.

[XTrain,YTrain] = digitTrain4DArrayData;
classes = categories(YTrain);
numClasses = numel(classes);

Define Network

Define the network and specify the average image using the 'Mean' option in the image input layer.

layers = [
    imageInputLayer([28 28 1], 'Name', 'input', 'Mean', mean(XTrain,4))
    convolution2dLayer(5, 20, 'Name', 'conv1')
    reluLayer('Name', 'relu1')
    convolution2dLayer(3, 20, 'Padding', 1, 'Name', 'conv2')
    reluLayer('Name', 'relu2')
    convolution2dLayer(3, 20, 'Padding', 1, 'Name', 'conv3')
    reluLayer('Name', 'relu3')
    fullyConnectedLayer(numClasses, 'Name', 'fc')];
lgraph = layerGraph(layers);

Create a dlnetwork object from the layer graph.

dlnet = dlnetwork(lgraph)
dlnet = 
  dlnetwork with properties:

         Layers: [8×1 nnet.cnn.layer.Layer]
    Connections: [7×2 table]
     Learnables: [8×3 table]
          State: [0×3 table]

Define Model Gradients Function

Create the function modelGradients, listed at the end of the example, that takes a dlnetwork object dlnet, a mini-batch of input data dlX with corresponding labels Y and returns the gradients of the loss with respect to the learnable parameters in dlnet and the corresponding loss.

Specify Training Options

Specify the training options.

velocity = [];
numEpochs = 20;
miniBatchSize = 128;
numObservations = numel(YTrain);
numIterationsPerEpoch = floor(numObservations./miniBatchSize);
initialLearnRate = 0.01;
momentum = 0.9;
decay = 0.01;

Train on a GPU if one is available. Using a GPU requires Parallel Computing Toolbox™ and a CUDA® enabled NVIDIA® GPU with compute capability 3.0 or higher.

executionEnvironment = "auto";

Train Model

Train the model using a custom training loop.

For each epoch, shuffle the data and loop over mini-batches of data. At the end of each epoch, display the training progress.

For each mini-batch:

  • Convert the labels to dummy variables.

  • Convert the data to dlarray objects with underlying type single and specify the dimension labels 'SSCB' (spatial, spatial, channel, batch).

  • For GPU training, convert to gpuArray objects.

  • Evaluate the model gradients and loss using dlfeval and the modelGradients function.

  • Determine the learning rate for the time-based decay learning rate schedule.

  • Update the network parameters using the sgdmupdate function.

Initialize the training progress plot.

plots = "training-progress";
if plots == "training-progress"
    figure
    lineLossTrain = animatedline;
    xlabel("Iteration")
    ylabel("Loss")
end

Train the network.

iteration = 0;
start = tic;

% Loop over epochs.
for epoch = 1:numEpochs
    % Shuffle data.
    idx = randperm(numel(YTrain));
    XTrain = XTrain(:,:,:,idx);
    YTrain = YTrain(idx);
    
    % Loop over mini-batches.
    for i = 1:numIterationsPerEpoch
        iteration = iteration + 1;
        
        % Read mini-batch of data and convert the labels to dummy
        % variables.
        idx = (i-1)*miniBatchSize+1:i*miniBatchSize;
        X = XTrain(:,:,:,idx);
        
        Y = zeros(numClasses, miniBatchSize, 'single');
        for c = 1:numClasses
            Y(c,YTrain(idx)==classes(c)) = 1;
        end
        
        % Convert mini-batch of data to dlarray.
        dlX = dlarray(single(X),'SSCB');
        
        % If training on a GPU, then convert data to gpuArray.
        if (executionEnvironment == "auto" && canUseGPU) || executionEnvironment == "gpu"
            dlX = gpuArray(dlX);
        end
        
        % Evaluate the model gradients and loss using dlfeval and the
        % modelGradients function.
        [gradients,loss] = dlfeval(@modelGradients,dlnet,dlX,Y);
        
        % Determine learning rate for time-based decay learning rate schedule.
        learnRate = initialLearnRate/(1 + decay*iteration);
        
        % Update the network parameters using the SGDM optimizer.
        [dlnet.Learnables, velocity] = sgdmupdate(dlnet.Learnables, gradients, velocity, learnRate, momentum);
        
        % Display the training progress.
        if plots == "training-progress"
            D = duration(0,0,toc(start),'Format','hh:mm:ss');
            addpoints(lineLossTrain,iteration,double(gather(extractdata(loss))))
            title("Epoch: " + epoch + ", Elapsed: " + string(D))
            drawnow
        end
    end
end

Test Model

Test the classification accuracy of the model by comparing the predictions on a test set with the true labels.

[XTest, YTest] = digitTest4DArrayData;

Convert the data to a dlarray object with dimension format 'SSCB'. For GPU prediction, also convert the data to gpuArray.

dlXTest = dlarray(XTest,'SSCB');
if (executionEnvironment == "auto" && canUseGPU) || executionEnvironment == "gpu"
    dlXTest = gpuArray(dlXTest);
end

To classify images using a dlnetwork object, use the predict function and find the classes with the highest scores.

dlYPred = predict(dlnet,dlXTest);
[~,idx] = max(extractdata(dlYPred),[],1);
YPred = classes(idx);

Evaluate the classification accuracy.

accuracy = mean(YPred==YTest)
accuracy = 0.9780

Model Gradients Function

The modelGradients function takes a dlnetwork object dlnet, a mini-batch of input data dlX with corresponding labels Y and returns the gradients of the loss with respect to the learnable parameters in dlnet and the corresponding loss. To compute the gradients automatically, use the dlgradient function.

function [gradients,loss] = modelGradients(dlnet,dlX,Y)

dlYPred = forward(dlnet,dlX);
dlYPred = softmax(dlYPred);

loss = crossentropy(dlYPred,Y);
gradients = dlgradient(loss,dlnet.Learnables);

end

More About

expand all

Introduced in R2019b